Global e-Business Association
[ Article ]
The e-Business Studies - Vol. 17, No. 5, pp.117-135
ISSN: 1229-9936 (Print) 2466-1716 (Online)
Print publication date Oct 2016
Final publication date 30 Oct 2016
Received 28 Sep 2016 Revised 24 Oct 2016 Accepted 27 Oct 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20462/tebs.2016.10.17.5.117

Effects of IT workers’ Emotional Intelligence and Job Crafting on Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

Hang Lee*
*Professor, Dept. of global economics, Gachon University hlee@gachon.ac.kr
IT기업 종사자의 감성지능과 잡 크래프팅이 직무만족과 직무성과에 미치는 영향
이항*
*가천대학교 글로벌경제학과 교수 hlee@gachon.ac.kr

Abstract

While business environment being keen due to the growth of information technology, IT (Information Technology) companies who has high dependency on manpower, they are a lot of effort to attract and reserve human resources for establish management policy as compared to other industries. This study focused on bottom-up working environment considering of specificity of the IT industry, which is emphasis work-life harmony and autonomy and delegation necessary to create office environment. Result to using the structural equation modeling (SEM) to verify the data collected from 198 IT company workers, Emotional Intelligence showed to be a positive impacton job crafting, and job crafting also appeared to be positive effect between job satisfaction and job performance. In addition, Job crafting appeared to have a mediating effects on the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction and between emotional intelligence and job performance.

초록

정보기술의 발전으로 경영환경이 날로 치열해지는 가운데 다른 인력 의존도가 높은 IT기업들은 타 업종에 비하여 경영정책을 수립하는데 인재를 유치하고 보유하는데 많은 노력을 기울이고 있다. 본 연구는 IT업계의 특수성을 고려하여 일과 삶의 조화가 강조되는 직무환경 조성이 필요한 자율성과 위임이 강조되는 하향식(Bottom-up) 업무환경에 주목하였다. 이러한 문제의식에서 출발하여 감성지능과 잡 크래프팅에 초점을 맞추어 이들 변수간의 관계를 밝혀내고 나아가 직무만족과 직무성과에 미치는 영향을 분석하는 데 목적이 있다. IT기업의 종사원 198명으로부터 수집한 자료를 검증하기 위하여 구조방정식모형(SEM)을 사용한 결과, 감성지능은 잡 크래프팅에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났고, 잡 크래프팅도 직무만족과 직무성과 간에도 모두 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 잡크래프팅은 감성지능과 직무만족 및 직무성과 간의 관계에 대하여 매개효과를 가지는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 연구결과는 IT기업이 향후 보다 적극적으로 종사원들의 개인적이고 심리적인 상태를 고려한 감성지능의 개발 및 지속적인 직무 설계가 이루어져야 할 필요성을 시사하고 있다.

Keywords:

Emotional Intelligence, Job Crafting, Job Satisfaction, Job Performance

키워드:

감성지능, 잡 크래프팅, 직무만족, 직무성과

Contents


Ⅰ. Introduction

Recently Google and Facebook are representative companies to create the business benefits via Internet, but it becomes hot topic that mutual movement of manpower frequently between these companies. Facebook emerged as the SNS provider as a significant threat to Google, more than 10% of Facebook employees were moving the jobs to Google. As a result, companies had drastically raise the salaries and bonuses of employees in order to prevent the departure of its core manpower. This trend is not the issue that only occurs in foreign companies, and some core manpower in the domestic also being leaked to other countries such as the US Silicon Valley etc. The frequent moving of IT specialists is positive way that it will be variety activities career in personal position, but it can be a huge obstacles in develop and growth the core manpower in position of corporation. IT staff are usually tend to perform knowledge-intensive tasks basically, in order to effectively use the information system. In addition, the knowledge demands on IT workers is more open, diverse and complicated than other manufacturing and services industry. It caused by recent development of Information communication technologies and these specificity of IT industry, changed into values that emphasized harmony of work-life, they prefer to the top-down working environment with the autonomy and delegation are emphasized, than the bottom-up management method with oppressive and controlled (Hyesun Kang, Xu Beibei, Jasook Ku 2015).

Outflow of IT professional manpower means the loss of knowledge and experience, intellectual property, customer relationships that must be accumulated over a long period of time, and it takes a huge amount of money for manpower supplement when occur turnover intention. Especially, the trend show that increase personal turnover, depending on the rapidly increasing demand for professional manpower in the IT field over the years (Quan and Cha, 2010), and due to such a high turnover rate in the IT industry, they are facing to the threat of manpower stability (Mcknight, Philips, and Hardgrave, 2009). Generally Personal Stability is to be a universal opinion, it has a positive influence on organizational performance (Meier and Hicklin, 2007; Shaw, Gupta, and Delery, 2005). Job security or Employment instability means the degree to perceived high risks to their job and employment condition (Greehhalgh and Rosenblatt, 1984), this is the factor to be avoided preferentially because it perceived or act on as threats to both individuals and companies. The study of turnover behavioral factors in domestic in response to these problem have been conducted across multiple dimensions (Hyeung Lee, Hanbyeol Kim, Jungwoo Lee 2014). However, job characteristic of the IT industry shows a lot of difference between job characteristics compared with other industries. For instance, according to the study of Couger and Zawacki (1978), IT workers have a relatively high growth desire compared with other industry workers, they announced a research result that tends to be more faithful to their duties than the organizational goals. A similar study in Woodruff (1980) was analyzed the indicator of personal characteristic of IT workers, and it was characterized by a strong patience, high achievement needs, job clearness, and the propensity of risk aversion etc. So, it is necessary to more in-depth and ongoing research in the IT industry compared to other industries in consideration of the workforce stability, because IT workers have the differences in job characteristics as well as personal characteristics compared by workers of other industries. Considering the unique characteristics of the IT job, analyzes the relationship with recent being an issued job crafting, emotional intelligence, job satisfaction and job performance, however, the comparable research is still almost not that such variables have how affect on job response of IT workers. IT professional manpower should be made high level of individual achievement desire, a voluntary will, cooperation with others as well as job design which is suitable for the personal aspirations or goals for learning, fulfill and apply a information technology of enterprise, and it can be a precedence factor to competitive advantage element, also enterprise is able to ensure the competitiveness and expect business performance.

In this study, It was planed to find out in the psychological and social point of view focusing on such problems that influence the business performance and job satisfaction in the long term based on the suitability of individual factors relating to the jobs giving from company officially. Therefore, the purpose of this study that First, make sure that emotional intelligence is the precedence factor of job crafting. Second, analyze the job crafting influence of the emotional intelligence and job satisfaction and analyze the emotional intelligence influence of relating to the job performance and job satisfaction. Third, in the organizational level of IT companies, enterprise provide management implications to raise the efficient business result.


Ⅱ. Conceptualizing the Hypotheses

1. Emotional Intelligence and Job Crafting

The concept of emotional intelligence has been received public attention by Goleman (1995), but actually, the basic concept about emotional intelligence has been raised in earnest that the study was published as from the Salovey and Mayer (1990). Since then, the researches are going on continually by many scholars to identify the specific concept of emotional intelligence, configuration factor, forms etc. and it has been developed many of models for analyzing the emotional intelligence. The emotional intelligence is not just in a general meaning refers to only sensitivity. The emotional intelligence means ability to estimate and express themselves and others' emotion, that is the cognitive ability to skillfully handle the emotions of themselves and others, and it means plan and achieve a life of their own, and utilization ability of sensibility (Salovey and Mayer, 1990).

On the other hand, Job crafting refers to a series of activities in the general concept to design and perform themselves suitable for their jobs to the jobs given to oneself (Wrzesniewski and Dutoon, 2001). Job crafting research is close relationship with Job modification in the job characteristics theory and mainly it has been deal with the concept of job redesign (Hackman and Oldham, 1980; Lyons, 2005). Job design of the traditional way is the top-down process which passed to members starts from managers, and the job crafting can called the bottom-up process of job design by workers change the job themselves In terms of defining the manner or form, scope of duties. In this sense, the job crafting is the concept newly introduced in order to overcome the limitations of existing job characteristics theory, and it means that makes change of physical, recognition as an informal and voluntary act, it's not the job or relationship defined by manager (Grant and Ashford, 2008). Order to exhibit the ability of the emotional intelligence, on the premise that self-expression skills, recognition abilities of others, skills of life planning, environmental responding capability, capabilities of leading and proactive etc., and in the case of job crafting, the configuration factor that consist of leading personality, self-efficacy, skills of life planning, positive self-image, desire on personal connections with others, therefore, such two concepts having a interrelated relationship as well as having a complementary relationship. However, the studies have almost nothing to revealing the relationship between the two variables, because the study about emotional intelligence and job crafting have been going on in each independent field.

Therefore, comparing and analysis the previous studies of the emotional intelligence and job crafting, and consider the relationship between these two variables, as follow. First, emotional intelligence and job crafting are commonly closely related to the improvement of organizational performance. And, Employee who is high emotional intelligence have much better the business performance that it has already been observed in several studies. In other words, Emotional intelligence is on the premise that self-expression skills, recognition abilities of others, skills of life planning, and environmental responding capability, and employee who is high emotional intelligence have a direct effect on high performance (Abraham, 1999). On the other hand, Job crafting also has a direct relationship with job satisfaction and organization performance (Hyesun, Kang et al. 2015). Because a job that require by certain organization is able to reflect the characteristics of the organization and employee who have a leading personality, self-efficacy, positive self-image has a high job suitability (Kristof, 1996). Breevaart, Bakker, and Demerouti (2014) also has argued that the change process through job recreate of the organization is creating a organization performance and leading a change. Second, emotional intelligence and job crafting emphasizes self-expression skills. Emotional intelligence is the ability to know how to express their feelings and emotions as well as feelings of others and it includes the ability to take advantage of their sensitivity to the work (Salovey and Mayer, 1990). In addition, results of the study of Mayer, Caruso and Salovey (1999), Bar-On (1997, 2006) that the ability to accurately perception, evaluation and expression of an emotion was proposed as an important factor as a component of emotional intelligence. It means that a personal who is objectively confront their feelings to accurately understanding their desire. Therefore, high emotional intelligence employees possess the ability to clearly express to their aptitude and self-image. Likewise Job crafting also premised the recognition for personal aptitude and self-image. According to the study of Bakker, Tims, and Derks (2012), the personal aptitude, self-image and personal necessity are enhanced the job absorption if match the job characteristics. Thus, Emotional intelligence and job crafting have in common in terms of improving job performance on the premise that ability to understanding of other's emotions as well as understanding of their aptitude and self-image. According to Salovey and Mayer (1990), emotional intelligence is plan and achieve a their life, this is what the ability to utilization the emotions. Bar-On (1997, 2006) also that emotional intelligence include the ability to react on change for the personal problem solution and Goleman (1995) also mentioned that emotional intelligence is a driving force of motivation. Planning and motivation of life, there is important configuration factor in the job crafting, and according to Deci and Ryan (1985), high intrinsic motivation in job crafting is increase the level of interest and absorption about the job depending on the self-determination theory. This high intrinsic motivation cause a positive attitude at job design process as well as a driving force that can continue personal efforts. Thus, voluntary life planning skills in the emotional intelligence expected to have a close relationship with high intrinsic motivation even in job crafting. Based on the discussion above, this study was set up the following hypothesis.

H1: Emotional Intelligence is positively related to job crafting.

2. Job Crafting and Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is often used mix with employee satisfaction, and it means they feels of satisfaction or displeasure on their job. In addition, it's an abstract represent for the mind state of inside a human rather than referred to specific things or physical state. Such a job satisfaction is directly related to the productivity and performance of the organization, depending on the attitude of employees (Insoo Jeon and Chongsik Chung 2006). Job crafting is generally exerts a positive impact on both personals and organizations, and that is closely related to the Job satisfaction has been reported by several researchers. In addition, Seibert et al. (2001) mentioned that employees who are actively performing their job, they feel more higher emotional satisfaction as well as a higher organizational performance, otherwise than in a employees. Wrzesniewski et al. (2010) also reported similar results that employees who operating a job crafting, they have higher job satisfaction and organization performance, otherwise than in a employees. And Bell and Staw (1989) tried on traced the relationship between job satisfaction and job crafting, and it showed that absorption on a personal job satisfaction, high affection on organization through the job crafting are influence on job attitude and job performance.

Guitulescu (2006) had progress a study on the relationship between job crafting, job satisfaction and absorption. and job crafting can raise the level of absorption by improving the self worth of the individual, and it showed the results that influence on positive into the job satisfaction and organizational absorption as a mediating effect of job crafting. Based on the discussion above, this study was set up the following hypothesis.

H2: Job crafting is positively related to job satisfaction.

3. Job Crafting and Job Performance

For the relationships of job crafting and job performance, generally expected to have a mutually positive relationship, however, Wrzesniewski and Dutton (2001) who is guru on job crafting research also did not mention obviously about impact on job crafting and job performance. Because job crafting impact on the organization performance is indirect or ambiguous (Jinlong, Cui 2015) and because improvement of job performance is not a main reason of job crafting (Leana, Appelbaum, and Shechuk, 2009). However, analysis of existing previous studies, even if the act of job crafting rather than being carried out strategically in the organizational level, it performed on a personal level, in general the relationship between two variables have mutually close relationship. Griffin (2007) expected that provide benefits to performance of organization, because job crafting behavior is improve personal job satisfaction and job identity by improve the quality of job on the whole. Wellins (1991) also showed a similar result that the authority of job granted to the organization members have personal performance as well as a positive impact to the organization's performance. Crawford, Lepine, and Rich (2010) presents the study results that setting up a challenging job to organization member is to increase stress, but it has a positive effect on absorption for a job. Petrou, Demerouti, Peeters, Schaufeli, and Hetland (2012) verified the validity of the job crafting based on the JD-R model. And job crafting behavior of the members was showed resource seeking activities of high levels, and also when the organization proposed to lower level of demands, the more seek the change, the more absorbed in their job. Put together the results of these previous studies, it is not easy to identify a direct correlation between job crafting and job performance, but major internal and external factors which affect on job performance of the organization are considering fact that personal job satisfaction, job identity and job absorption. Then, Job crafting bring about the improvement of these variables and it can be deduced that can enhance the job performance to these variables as parameters. Based on the discussion above, this study was set up the following hypothesis.

H3: Job crafting is positively related to job performance

4. Job Satisfaction and Job Performance

Job satisfaction has been known to have a close relationship with the factors associated with organizational structures, in other words, organizational factors such as salary, promotion, business procedures, and leader and physical working environment, also leader style, involvement of decision-making, relationships with colleagues, physical work condition etc. In addition, it can be variety of affected by the job description factors such as job scope and role conflict, and the personal characteristics factors such as personality, age etc (Bruck et al, 2002; Judge et al, 2001; Judge et al., 2002). The job includes human relations in accordance with the individual's emotional attitudes and wages, job-related duties, and it is not meant one job only, includes a variety of factors (Bonggyu, Kim 2006). Therefore, Job performance is also a comprehensive concept inevitably be affected by a variety of concepts such as productivity, cohesiveness of members, absorption and loyalty as personal characteristics. However, common concept of these job performances coincide that job performance is index for evaluating the effectiveness of organization in the organization management. According to previous studies, job satisfaction was a positive effect on job performance (Yeonsun Kim and Sunghyuk Kim 2010). Job satisfaction research conducted by the employees working in the hotel also showed that between job satisfaction and job performance was positive effect (Minhwan Kim, Youngjin Yoo, Jungsun Song 2012). In addition, putting together the results of previous researches about between job satisfaction and job performance including various parameters, It was known that the more increased job satisfaction, the more increases an individual's job performance (Judge et al., 2001; Locke and Latham, 2004; Hwang and Chi, 2005). Based on the discussion above, this study was set up the following hypothesis.

H4: Job satisfaction is positively related to job performance.

5. Mediating Effects of Job Crafting

Locke (1976) look on job satisfaction as a type of attitude, and it include both cognitive side and emotional side of the individual. Therefore, emotional intelligence has a close relationship with job satisfaction. Cherniss and Adler (2000), Wong and Law (2002) also showed that the higher emotional intelligence, and job satisfaction is high. However, unlike the above studies, the study of Austin et al. (2005) reported that there is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction. Livingstone and Day (2005) results showed that mutual differently depending on the emotional intelligence self-report tests (SSRI, EQ-i, etc.) and performance focused tests (MSCEIT). Thus, the more in-depth research and analysis are needed because between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction it does not appear consistent results. In addition, analyze several previous studies results to clarify the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance, in general between the two variables appear to have a positive relationship. According to Locke and Latham (2004), compensation for performance brings job satisfaction, and it has been confirmed that job satisfaction is to enhance job performance. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationship between emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, and job performance. Hiltz and Johnson (1990) reported that if individual is recognize and perceive the performance, and more positive job performance is possible and improve productivity as well. The study in Korea showed similar results. Misun Park, Hongchul Shin (2011) showed that job performance was positive, a person who can understand the emotions of others and can control their emotions. Besides, putting together several prior studies that reported generally emotional intelligence have meaningful static relationships with job performance (Hyuneung Lee, Hang Lee, Joonhwan Kim 2010). Though more research is needed to reach conclusions, the results of a few studies using the ability model indicate that emotional intelligence is positively related to job performance and job satisfaction (Janovics and Christiansen, 2001; Lopes et al., 2003; Lopes et al., 2005). Existing researches on emotional intelligence are mainly focused on the relationship between performance, and research on factors to mediate the relationship is still insufficient. According to Kernbach and Schutte (2005), the high emotional intelligence of employees in case of service dealing is show the customer satisfaction and positive relationships. Based on this, analyzing the relationship between emotional intelligence, job crafting, job satisfaction and job performance of IT company workers and expected that emotional intelligence improve to job satisfaction and job performance by increasing the level of job crafting, and established the following hypothesis.

H5: Job crafting of will mediate the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction.
H6: Job crafting will mediate the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance.

Besides, Goleman (1998) defines emotional competence as a learned capability based on emotional intelligence that results in outstanding performance at work. Rutter and Fielding (1988) found that a perceived need to suppress genuinely felt emotion in the workplace is negatively associated with job satisfaction. The results of several studies indicate that EI is positively related to job performance and job satisfaction even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits (Livingstone and Day, 2005; Wong and Law, 2002). Emotional intelligence not only has an indirect effect and it may directly affect via job Crafting, so established the following hypothesis.

H7: Emotional intelligence is positively related to job satisfaction.
H8: Emotional intelligence is positively related to job performance.

The conceptualization of hypotheses is presented in the research model of Figure 1.

[Figure 1]

Research ModelNote. Only the latent variables are shown in the model. Solid lines represent hypothesized paths, and dashed lines represent alternative paths. EI = emotional intelligence, JC = job crafting, JS = job satisfaction, JP = Job performance


Ⅲ. Methods

The purpose of this study was to uncover the relationship between the components of emotional intelligence and job crafting and to identify the effect of these constructs on job satisfaction and job performance. In the literature review, it was found that this topic has been hardly studied in previous quantitative research. The target population and sample, instrumentation, and the methods for data collection and data analysis are presented. In addition to descriptive statistics and correlational statistics, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test empirically the proposed conceptual model and to test the associated research hypotheses.

1. Sample Characteristics

As shown in Table 1, completed questionnaires were received from 210 respondents from the 215 distributed surveys, with 198 being useable, yielding 12 respondents per survey item. Of the employees who responded to the questionnaire (n=198), male respondents were approximately double the number of female respondents. Majority of participants were male(69.2%) and between 20 and 29 years old (40.9%). and 3~4 years (27.3%) and 5~10 years (25.8%) in terms of years of tenure, university graduates(52.0%) in terms of academic background, married (72.7%) in terms of marital status, and full time (69.2) in terms of employment type were majorities.

Demographic Characteristics of the Sample

2. Measures

The data were collected from paper and pencil based survey questionnaires. This survey employed existing measures on emotional intelligence, job crafting, job satisfaction and job performance. All variables were measured using multi-item scales that had been previously validated through confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis. It was demonstrated that the reliability of all scales was adequate levels with Nunnally’s (1978) standard of .70 or higher alpha coefficients.

Emotional intelligence was measured using 16 items scale developed by Wong and Law (2002). WLEIS (Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale) were used, which had been validated in various organizational settings. This measurement used a five-point Likert scale and was composed of four dimensions, i.e., appraisal of self-emotion, use of emotion, appraisal of others’ emotion, and regulation of emotion, which are reflective of the construct definition proposed by Mayer et al. (2003). To assess job crafting, 12 items will be randomly selected from the managing Slemp and Vella-Brodrick (2013) (Job Crafting Questionnaire; JCQ) Job satisfaction was measured using the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS), a five-item scale developed by Hackman and Oldham (1975). In the other inventory, employees’ job performance will be measured. This inventory will be developed by Hiltz and Johnson (1990). It will use a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (very low) to 5 (very high). The test will assess the employee’s expertise, the effectiveness of performance, the efficiency of performance, and the results of recent task performance.

3. Common Method Biases

There is a possibility to the common method bias because it depend on the self-report type in the measurement of variables. Thus it was used the Harman one-factor test method to verify the common method bias (Podsakoff and Organ, 1986). As a result of analysis, the total cumulative variance was 62.8%, the most explanatory power is a big factor was 26.7% of the total variance explained, but it can not be seen as “universal” factors. Thus, it was judged to have no error by the common method bias under method of the present study.


Ⅳ. Analyses and Results

1. Descriptive Statistics and Correlations

Both descriptive and correlational statistics were employed to test the interrelationships of the constructs in the conceptual model. To test the proposed hypotheses, structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed. Correlation analysis was appropriate for investigating relationships among the main constructs. Table 2 presents the means, correlations, and reliabilities of the seven constructs used.

Descriptive Statistics and Correlations

Results of Exploratory Factor Analysis

2. Assessment of the Measurement Model

Using the two-step approach was applied (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988), so the assessment of the measurement model was examined before assessing the structural model. The following fit indices will be used. chi-square goodness-of-fit statistic, the root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA), and the comparative fit index (CFI). The lower bound of good fit for the CFI is typically considered .90, and for the RMSEA, the upper bounds of good fit are .08 (Vandenberg & Lance, 2000). The CFA provided a marginally acceptable fit to the data (χ²=403.325, df=242; AGFI=.897; RMR=.046; GFI=.861; TLI=.921; CFI=.931; RMSEA=.057).

3. Assessment of the Structural Model

These hypotheses were examined through investigating the path coefficients and bootstrapping approaches were used to test the mediation effect of job crafting. The results are presented in Table 4. The Structural model indicated a good fit in all indices (χ²=439.134, df=248; AGFI=.885; RMR=.052; GFI=.849; TLI=.909; CFI=.918; RMSEA=.061). The average variance extracted (AVE) from each variable was calculated to examine the validity of the determination variables. AVEs range of from .662 to .801 was more than .50, which satisfies the criteria (Fornell and Larcker, 1981).

The results of testing the hypotheses are presented in Figure 2. First, emotional intelligence showed a significant, positive relationship with job crafting and thus, hypothesis 1 was supported (path coefficient = .843, t= 6.071, p < .01). Second, hypothesis 2 was supported since job crafting showed a positive relationship with job satisfaction (path coefficient= .591, t= 7.383, p < .01). Third, job crafting was found to have a positive relationship with job performance and thus, hypothesis 3 was supported (path coefficient = .644, t= 6.385, p < .01).

Estimates of Fit Indices

[Figure 2]

Estimates of Path Coefficients in the Structural Model** p<.01

Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis

4. Mediation Effects of Job Crafting

Table 6 further presents the test results of indirect effects from the bootstrapping procedure (Preacher and Hayes, 2004). Bootstrapping is performed by taking a very large number of samples with the same size as the original sample, sampling with replacement, and computing the statistic in each sample (Preacher and Hayes, 2004).

Bootstrapping Tests for Indirect Effects

<Table 7> one as 'EI → JS', as a result of even estimating path coefficients of the partial mediation model of alternative models, add the path of the 'EI → JP' presented, both paths have added significant was found not (t = .005, p = .963; t = .159, p = .131). In order to compare the fit of the model and the part fully mediated model parameters were estimated for the model fit indices of each model, and the results are shown in <Table 6>.

Kline (2005) compared the fit of the two models if the χ2 value significantly make a difference compared to the difference between the degrees of freedom by comparing the χ2 value of each model brevity (parsimony) freedom is generally accepted as the highest models. Compared to fit the model in this study, a fully mediated model was found to fit the degree of freedom does not fall significantly higher or more partial mediation model as compared to 2 (Δχ2 = .067), the path coefficient estimate the results of the partial mediation model was finally adopted in a fully mediated model appeared, because it does not have a significant direct effect on Emotional intelligence, job satisfaction and job performance. If this degree of freedom is 2, the differences may conclude that the difference between the values of the two model be at least 5.99 at = .05 level, with a significant difference in the fit of the model.

If Job crafting mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and job performance, the indirect effect of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and job performance through job crafting should be significantly different from zero. Then the direct effect of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and job performance, controlling for job crafting, will be smaller than the total effect of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and job performance. As can be seen in Table 6, all bootstrap estimates of the 95% confidence interval for the indirect effect of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and job performance did not contain zero regardless of the method used. Because the indirect effect of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and job performance through job crafting was significantly different from zero at α=.05, it was concluded that job crafting mediated the relationship between emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and the relationship between emotional intelligence on job performance. Therefore, hypotheses 5 and 6 were supported.

Model Comparison


Ⅴ. Conclusion and Implications

This study focused on job crafting, and job crafting is spotlighted as a new way of job performance and it digress from the area of emotional management of organization members and traditional job design in order to respond actively to environmental changes in the IT industry that rapidly changing to meet the information technology development. In this study reveals that emotional intelligence about personal job which is the knowledge dependency higher than in other industries, and emphasize more creativity in IT-related jobs is how the impact on job crafting to emphasize the voluntary individual-environmental suitability, and Emotional intelligence and job crafting are how the impact on job satisfaction and job performance of organization members, it was to investigate the interaction between the variables through the structural framework of relationship between each variable. This study can be summarized as follows.

First, Emotional intelligence was found to have a positive impact on job crafting. In this study showed that emotional intelligence is a key concept about self-expression, emotional adjustment skills, recognition ability of others, ability of life planning, based on the definition of the Salovey and Mayer (1990), Goleman (1995), Bar-On (2006), and in accordance with the opinion of the Wrzesniewski and Dutton (2010), autonomy, interaction with others, ability of life planning, reduction behavior on job requirement were set up as a key concept of Job crafting. In this study, emotional intelligence was found to have a positive relationship on job crafting. In other words, it demonstrated that results to empirically support the hypothesis that emotional intelligence can change the task-related behaviors in terms of desires for job control, positive self-image, social desire with others, self-efficacy have effect on Job crafting. These results that emotional intelligence related to personal desires affects the individual's job person-fit, as well as personal-job compatibility affects the personal-organization compatibility, thus it may act in a more positive for the organization (Kristof, 1996). Also, based on a job demands-resource model of Tims, Bakker, and Derks (2012), when the job demands are high, a psychological stability and job stability of workers can be reduced at the same time (Margot Van Der Doef and Maes, 1999), as a way to overcome these job requirements that increase resistance to challenging job demands or reduces the obstacle to job request as improving emotional intelligence ability for employees, the results show that more efficient job crafting is possible. Employees actually show a higher job performance about the job when they have faith in themselves what they can perform well (Vough and Parker, 2008). In this aspect, employees who have high levels of emotional competencies actually more likely to perform the change of the job, and if do the job crafting, it is necessary to actively take advantage of the emotional competencies of employees.

Second, Job crafting was found on both the positive impact on job satisfaction and job performance. In this study, effect relationship between two variables were set up as the hypothesis based on the previous researches (Bell and Staw, 1989; Seibert et al., 2001) that job crafting have a positive impact on both individuals and organizations, and in particular it have a close relationship with job satisfaction, and job crafting and job satisfaction was found to have a positive relationship. Wrzesniewski and Dutton (2001) did not make clear the influence relationship about job crafting and job performance, but in this study were derived the result that the mutual positive. It was found that rather than design a job one-sided way to employees, personally give meaning and value about their job and it can be increase in job satisfaction through the leading job design. In addition, the relationship between job performance and job crafting based on previous studies of Griffin et al. (2007) and Wellins (1991), two variables were considered to be correlated, and results showed that between job performance and job crafting a positive relationship. These results can be understand that the creativity and openness is important due to the job characteristics of the IT industry, and personal driven and autonomous work environments also important factor, and can increase the job performance of the organization by create these organization condition.

Third, job satisfaction was found to have a positive impact on job performance. These results is coincides with the existing previous study results (Judge et al. 2001; Locke and Latham, 2004; Hwang and Chi, 2005). Job satisfaction showed that the contents of job in physical side is important, but it can be affected on various factors including emotional intelligence that make up the emotions competencies, and job initiative, spontaneity, and social relationships with others etc. As the configuration factors of job crafting by personal characteristics factors. Therefore, it seems to should consider the in-depth characteristics factors in personal levels with job design and management led by organizational level.

Fourth, the emotional intelligence did not show significant results of job satisfaction and job performance. This present study is seen as a result of the research conducted with a focus on personal characteristics factors rather than structural aspects of the organization of job area, scope, boundaries. As discussed in previous studies that research in this area is should be conducted in-depth analysis in the future because it does not appear consistent results between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction. In addition, Job crafting was found to mediate the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction, job performance. These results is judged to be due to the result of a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and job crafting that the first hypothesis proved. That is, the present study conducted that the common factor between emotional intelligence and job crafting, that was to focused primarily on the psychological factors of inherent in personal, thus Job crafting is determined that it is mediating the job satisfaction and job performance. Based on this research, the frontline companies realize the importance of job crafting, and it is necessary to consider how to improve job satisfaction and performance that consider of job crafting from staffing.

This study is the research on emotional intelligence, job crafting, job satisfaction and job performance of IT company workers. However, the IT industry is just abbreviation of the information technology, and information technology include comprehensive concept including tangible and intangible technologies such a computer, S/W, internet, multimedia etc. depending on computerization means. So there is a limit in terms of exploratory research for convenience sampling. In addition, the next study materialized about job crafting which is staying in job redesign levels so far and emotional intelligence which is not completely escape from the abstract concept. And it seems that there is a need to develop more precisely these studies. Also, the research is not limit to only IT company the area of emotional intelligence and job crafting, and if the research is in progress over the other industries, depending on the changing business environment which openness and autonomy is important, the subsequent studies more suitable for company condition would be a chance to appear.

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[Figure 1]

[Figure 1]
Research ModelNote. Only the latent variables are shown in the model. Solid lines represent hypothesized paths, and dashed lines represent alternative paths. EI = emotional intelligence, JC = job crafting, JS = job satisfaction, JP = Job performance

[Figure 2]

[Figure 2]
Estimates of Path Coefficients in the Structural Model** p<.01

Contents

ABSTRACT
Ⅰ. Introduction
Ⅱ. Conceptualizing the Hypotheses
Ⅲ. Methods
Ⅳ. Analyses and Results
Ⅴ. Conclusion and Implications
References
국문초록

<Table 1>

Demographic Characteristics of the Sample

Demographics Number Percentage
(%)
Demographics Number Percentage
(%)
Gender Male
Female
137
61
69.2
30.8
Marital
status
Married
Single
144
54
72.7
27.3
Age 20-29
30-39
40-49
50~59
81
78
20
19
40.9
39.4
10.1
9.6
Employment
type
Full-time
Incentive
contract
137
61
69.2
30.8
Academic
level
High school,
College,
University,
Graduate school
41
38
103
16
20.7
19.2
52.0
8.1
Years of
tenure
Less than 1
1 - 2 years
3 -4 years
5 -10 years
More than 10
42
34
54
51
17
21.2
17.2
27.3
25.8
8.6

<Table 2>

Descriptive Statistics and Correlations

Variables MEAN S.D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Note: N = 198, **p < .01
*p < .05, the numbers in parentheses are Cronbach Alpha coefficients.
1. SEA 3.903 .5988 (.805)
2. OEA 3.724 .6494 .587** (.776)
3. UOE 3.722 .7046 .682** .489** (.766)
4. ROE 3.448 .7847 .371** .316** .424** (.822)
5. JC 4.084 .6298 .445** .240** .452** .188* (.933)
6. JP 3.747 .7457 .405** .364** .470** .283** .481** (.793)
7. JS 3.796 .6214 .477** .313** .554** .197* .721** .430** (.723)

<Table 3>

Results of Exploratory Factor Analysis

Variables Items Factor
Loding
Factor
Loding
Factor
Loding
Factor
Loding
Factor
Loding
Factor
Loding
Factor
Loding
KMO
SEA S1
S2
S3
S4
.656
.700
.577
.602
.796
OEA O1
O2
O3
O4
.638
.687
.636
.456
.775
UOE U1
U2
U3
U4
.511
.560
.642
.655
.766
ROE R1
R2
R3
R4
.556
.679
.719
.674
.789
JC J1
J2
J3
J4
J5
J6
J7
J8
J9
J10
J11
J12
.536
.660
.581
.651
.674
.553
.646
.649
.674
.785
.581
.564
.786
JP JP1
JP2
JP3
JP4
.608
.601
.598
.580
.726
JS JS1
JS2
JS3
.832
.828
.875
.699

<Table 4>

Estimates of Fit Indices

Model χ2(p) RMR RMSEA GFI CFI TLI AGF
measurement model 403.325 .046 .057 .861 .931 .921 .897
Structural model 439.134 .052 .061 .849 .918 .909 .885
recommended values p≥.01 ≤.05 ≤.08 ≥.9 ≥.9 ≥.9 ≥.9

<Table 5>

Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Variables Items SMC CCR AVE C.R. Standard
factor
loading
S.E
SEA have a good sense of why I have certain feelings most of the time
have good understanding of my own emotions
really understand what I feel
always know whether or not I am happy
.562
.522
.630
.544
.933 .752 -
8.609
8.290
6.443
.713
.788
.715
.531
-
.141
.119
.130
OEA always know my friends’ emotion from their behavior
a good observer of others’ emotions
sensitive to the feelings and emotions of others
have good understanding of the emotions of people around me
.582
.512
.621
.509
.954 .801 -
9.229
8.035
8.360
.737
.794
.650
.680
-
.103
.099
.092
UOE always set goals for myself and then try my best to achieve them
always tell myself I am a competent person
a self-motivated person
always encourage myself to try my best
.552
.537
.505
.547
.912 .687 -
6.446
6.923
6.953
.589
.637
.733
.743
-
.196
.180
.183
ROE able to control my temper and handle difficulties rationally
quite capable of controlling my own emotions
always calm down quickly when I am very angry
have good control of my own emotions
.537
.670
.595
.585
.924 .698 -
8.163
8.379
7.911
.620
.772
.818
.732
-
.197
.169
.152
JC introduce new approaches to improve your work
change the scope or types of tasks that you complete at work
introduce new work tasks that you think better suit your skills
choose to take on additional tasks at work
give preference to work tasks that suit your skills or interests
think about how your job gives your life purpose
reflect on the role your job has for your overall well-being
make an effort to get to know people well at work
organize or attend work related social functions
organize special events in the workplace
choose to mentor new employees
make friends with people at work who have similar skills
.596
.576
.516
.585
.594
.583
.545
.635
.621
.875
.836
.725
.858 .662 -
7.756
7.712
7.137
6.401
8.090
8.098
7.916
8.369
7.266
8.548
8.104
.726
.727
.723
.672
.604
.757
.830
.742
.782
.683
.798
.759
-
.127
.150
.152
.135
.129
.132
.127
.125
.143
.146
.132
JP employee’s expertise
the effectiveness of performance
the efficiency of performance
the results of recent task performance
.507
.506
.638
.510
.946 .789 -
8.803
9.473
6.956
.728
.714
.799
.554
-
.121
.112
.094
JS all in all, I am satisfied with my job
in general, I like working here
in general, I don’t like my job(reverse coded)
.552
.804
.549
.879 .716 -
5.731
6.535
.591
.897
.593
-
.268
.177

<Table 6>

Bootstrapping Tests for Indirect Effects

Model χ² df Δχ2 TLI CFI GFI RMR RMSEA
partial mediation model 419.198 246 - .917 .926 .857 .048 .058
fully mediation model 439.134 248 1.771 .909 .918 .849 .052 .061

<Table 7>

Model Comparison

Path Estimate SE Bootstrap 95% Confidence Interval
Percentile Bias-corrected
EI → JS .005 .101 (.015, .179) (.019, .195)
EI → JP .259 .120 (.025, .237) (.028, .251)